Mediterranean Diet and Healthy Eating

Italian Foods

Being Italian it makes very difficult to adjust to any other diet; Italians love their own food and ways they make; unfortunately, the Italian diet has been known for long time as the “spaghetti and meatballs”, lasagna” , “chicken parmesan”, “fettucine alfredo”, etc., to mention some of the most commons, but Italian food is not simply that, and many people now know, especially those who are used to travel or to work in this field, and today with the global internet communication everything becomes more available and easy to find and the world is communicating extensively; local customs, culture and traditions are crossing the oceans and all the barriers and dishes from all other places of the world are exchanged and many times rearranged.

The TV seems to be the major media and vector of transmission, there are so many programs on food and creativity and a variety of creations and recipes from food blogs articles, books and socials networks; today there is certainly an explosion in this field too so it has been with naturopathy and integrative health and because of this, many dishes and  recipes have been adapted to the new wave of wellness and love for the nature, fresh, pure and organic and many company producing organic, fresh and whole food are growing all around the countries and making all of us more interested to foods.

Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet is a sort of anti-inflammatory diet and this is the reason why both the American Cancer Society than the American Heart Association have included in their guidelines with limits on grains, I believe; it involves a variety of anti-oxidants and so anti-inflammatory foods as flavonoids and polyphenols, those in fruit and vegetables mainly, healthy grains and spices, lean proteins and healthy fats as oil of olive and olives, and nuts.


Italian Dieting

Going back to the Italian diet as a Mediterranean diet, it is true that many Italian dishes can be unhealthy, but for sure they taste good; the problem with that is due to the way they are cooked mainly, and to some ingredients used eventually, as excess of dairy and fats, of course, all fried and grilled foods or high heat preparations are non-healthy, but, yes, they are the most tasty; occasional they should be okay, slow cooking, boiling, steaming, baking and broiling are for sure the healthiest ways to cook.

If an Italian diets, the diet is mainly light and clean, Italians relay essentially on very simple food, and with diet of course the quantity, doses and frequency of meals are reduced, the condiments very essential and limited, as quantity of oil, salt and any other dressing, and ways to cook the healthiest, but as a Mediterranean  diet, Italian diet does not miss any type of foods other than foods too greasy or fatty, with too many proteins, sugars and eggs, and obviously fried, grilled and junky foods.

Dieting this way and not eating much first of all, people can clean liver and gastrointestinal tract and rebalancing the gut flora, more essentially, they lose weight for not eating much.

The Blood Type Diet

The reason why I personally have been attracted by the blood type diet at the begin of my discover it was for the science behind and the concept of lectins and agglutinations and reasons why foods can cause number of problems in some people but not in others based on blood types, and because mainly for my type this diet has much similarity with the Mediterranean diet, but with more avoidance of type of grains, fruits and vegetables, meat and fish, more restricted for sure.

I totally understand the concept of lectins for the body reacts to those as to any type of antigens and of intolerances to foods and from here of autoimmunity and eventually cancer, or any other disease, especially as Dr. Tom O’Brian so as Dr. Peter D’Adamo, among all the other doctors I follow, emphasizes on regular basis in his articles and public appearances, but for me it has been always very difficult the battle with foods, because I like foods, therefore I try to do my best and to avoid as much as I can bad foods and habits and try to eat clean and healthy and light for the most.

Anti-inflammatory Foods

My preferred foods and those I should eat for my thyroid condition, as nutrient dense, anti-inflammatories and detoxifiers are:

Vegetables of all type, fruit with not much sugar, and legumes which I love, along with salads of any type, soups with herbs and spices, healthy grains pasta with different vegetables or seafood, lean meat and light fish, healthy dessert mainly made with healthy flours, sugars and fats and very occasionally, and dark chocolate, another of my preferred.


Healthy Methods of Cooking

My ways to cook are usually the healthiest, slow cooking, steaming, boiling, backing, and broiling, or sauté’, I do not grill often, I rarely fry and mainly fish, or shrimps, and do not use eggs in the marinate process but only spices and healthy flours.

I like to mix greens and salads with fruits and nuts, or tomatoes and croutons, my marinates for salads are usually red or green onions and lemon, or balsamic vinegar along with extra-virgin oil of olive and salt.

The soups I prefer and cook more often are, vegetable broth, minestrone, lentils-carrots soup, cauliflower, kale, garbanzo, white beans soup, and so on. With every of these soups I use as basic elements like, garlic, onions, basil, parsley, rosemary and thyme, celery, and carrots and other herbs and spices, ginger, and turmeric only in some of them.

I normally cook all ingredients together with water,  carrots, celery and onions, I do not sauté’, only with beans soup I do, I sauté the tomatoes first with garlic, then I add the rinsed beans, and water, celery and parley, and some vegetable broth, I only use vegetable broth or beef broth for roast or stew, I really do not like chicken broth, but I do make chicken soup and in that case I use vegetable broth and water, and usual ingredients mentioned above.

Of course, I love pasta and can cook in a variety of ways, and I am also sometimes inspired from the variety of recipes around so as with other dishes. I try to use different grains, but once in a while I must have my regular pasta, or a “Margherita” pizza, or any other assembled with the usual clean ingredients, tomatoes, and basil and parmesan, and/or other vegetables.


The basic ingredients for my pasta are tomatoes-garlic-basil, or tomatoes-garlic- parsley with seafood, these cooking requires sauté the garlic first in oil, but I try to do a gentle sauté since I only use oil of olive for this type of cooking and which is not an high temperature oil, but only to use for slow cooking and marinating salads; onion instead with some kind of vegetables. For example, I prefer pasta and broccoli with garlic, but pasta and zucchini with onion and basil, with both of these I can use turmeric if I feel.

Turmeric as ginger, or the enzyme bromelain gives as sensation of clean and purity after eating or taking.

I use lots of herbs and healthy spices in the kitchen like, basil, oregano, parsley, rosemary, mint, thyme, ginger and turmeric when appropriate, and using these is particularly important as we all know, the benefits and functions that have been highlighted recently are countless. I drink a lot of filtered water or sparkling water with lemon, wine occasionally, but in little amount, and green teas.

I am trying to perfecting time by time and day by day ways to eat and lifestyle also for listening the incessant suggestions from providers, the doctors I follow and from all the news in regard of health, adapting some of my dishes and recipes to healthy way of cooking always more, reducing the frequency of the less healthy ways, and eliminating always more foods that I know are not beneficial for me, and in general for everyone.

I guess, this is what most of the people do today, or try to as I do.

Thanks For Reading

Mariarosaria M.

COVID-19, New Founds and Therapeutic Strategies

Current Situation

What the current situation is?

The virus is there, it did not disappear, but our immunity has changed eventually, or many of us were infected and did not even know, or the virus has mutated in a less lethal form, Dr. Michael Murray thinks that we have reached the herd immunity, which means that we have obtained a partial immunity.

However, the cases are continuing, certainly in a moderate number compared to few weeks ago, but it depends from State to State in regard of the United States while in Europe and other country it seems they are increasing again.

The point is, if the infection is still so lethal as it was, and especially for those immunological compromised, or with chronic and inflammatory diseases, and if the therapeutic approaches have improved thanks to the wide-spread research and clinical trials.

In a webinar hosted around a month ago, Dr. Michael Murray, N.D., was mentioning that we are close to an end and that the virulence of the virus has lowered, the virus has mutated and has become more infectious, and this is why probably the surge of new cases and mainly in the areas not hit from the begin, but less lethal. The CDC also seems to agree with the fact that the infectivity of the virus has increased while the lethality decreased.

Dr. Murray was already talking about herd immunity in a previous article and what has been emerging from this is that the reason why many antibodies tests also from people that were affected by COVID are negative for antibodies to the virus it is because the immunity to this virus is not due to the antibodies produced by B-lymphocytes, IgM or IgG, but to the T-memory-cells produced by T-lymphocytes.

From the article:

“Herd Immunity has occurred in selected areas where ~ 20% of population tests positive for antibodies, while 40-60% of population may have partial or complete T-cell immunity.

It looks like that SARS-CoV-2 reactive CD4+ T-cells have been found in 40-60% of unexposed individuals suggesting cross-reactive T-cell recognition between circulating common cold, coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.”

I was personally wondering about cross- reactivity among SARS-CoV-2 and the other coronaviruses from the begin trying to explain to myself why with a pandemic like this and so infectious diseases many of us did not get sick.

Continuing from the article:

“Cell-mediated immunity appears to be the more important adaptive immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Memory T cells are instructed to recognize specific antigens to trigger a faster and stronger immune response after encountering the same antigen, they play a central role in protecting against reinfection.

Recent studies done on different population of people affected or not from the virus have demonstrate that natural exposure to the virus, even if not infection develops, can produce a strong memory T cell response.

In a study, published in Nature on July 15, 2020, researchers first looked at the T cells in COVID-19 recovered patients and they found that these were showing long-lasting memory T cells reactive to various SARS-CoV-2 antigens some of which 100% identical to antigenic proteins found on other SARS-CoV-1.

This indicates that subjects who developed SARS-CoV-1 infection may be immune to SARS-CoV-2.The researchers concluded that prior infection with other coronaviruses, including those that cause the common cold, can produce multiple specific and long-lasting T cell effects that impose immunity against not only these viruses, but also to SARS-CoV-2.”

These data obviously justify the existence of cross-reactivity among SARS-CoV-2 and the other Coronaviruses.

In regard instead of what can or not affect the virulence or infectivity of the virus there are of course number of studies and others already proved and validated.

Most common and commented the role of ACE-2 inhibitors, popular lowering blood pressure medications that seem to be a way of facilitation of entrance for the virus instead of a sort of competition due to the fact the virus proteins have affinity for the same receptors to which these drugs bind, but it looks like that ACE-2 inhibitors blocking the receptors lead to an increase in the number of these on the cells increasing this way the number of entrance for SARS-CoV-2.

The gastrointestinal tract, or GI, is another important route for SARS-CoV-2, the virus travels from the gut to the lungs, or other organs, as we know now can infect several area of the body, stomach acid and digestive enzymes have as well important role for immune health.

Proton-Pump-Inhibitors, or PPI, or acid preventing medication are also blamed for increasing the gut route of the coronavirus; tests of validation have been done on animal models.

Digestive enzymes, in particular pancreatic enzymes are part of non-specific resistance to GI infection, proteases like “Serratia Mucolytic Peptidase”, or bromelain are used in vaccine preparation to neutralize viruses.

Dr. Murray was already talking about the benefits of digestive enzymes in previous articles, as much as of the importance of quercetin as ionophore for zinc which is a viral replication inhibitor, as well as about the importance of all the other flavonoids and polyphenols found in fruit and vegetables to support and strength the immune system.

Other factors that may influence or not the infectivity of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 could be the blood type influence or the methylation status of a person, for example, but these factors have been not enough validated, and the comorbidity, or susceptibility, or risk factors, age, and viral load of exposure remain the most documented factors.

The discovers and molecules experimented are several so as the research in course all over the world, among the natural molecules, one of the most approved recently also through clinical trial seems to be the glutathione or GSH- whose precursor is N-acetyl-cysteine or NAC also over mentioned for its mucolytic properties-the most powerful body antioxidant with all its properties and benefits and mainly with detoxification, but recently its antiviral properties have been highlighted even more; it seems from several studies that people with worse course of the disease and fatality have been found with deficit of level of glutathione or GSH as much as of vitamin D levels.

Months ago searching from data from Pub Med I saw  an article of trials done with bromelain, as previously mentioned, bromelain is a digestive enzyme, pretty much used in supplements as digestive aid and even more as anti-inflammatory if taken away from meals; considering the nature of the viral infection and inflammatory  cascade due to the cytokine storm and collateral damages, all the natural molecules with anti-inflammatory principles should be considered. Turmeric, for example, other powerful antioxidant very well-known and with multiple benefits is also used as anti-inflammatory at certain doses.

Other data from Pub Med library were mentioning melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment, and we have already heard about this one more molecule from many other scientists.

This study for example was evaluating the effects of melatonin with COVID-19 pathology mainly expressed as excessive inflammation and immune response that leads to the cytokine storm and consequent respiratory distress syndrome.” Melatonin, as a well-known sleep aid molecule has many more properties as anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative molecule and is protective against the inflammatory damages caused by pathogens. It seems to be effective in critical care patients by reducing vessel permeability, anxiety, and sedation, and, of course, the sleep quality, beneficial for better clinical outcomes for COVID-19 patients.”

Another study was analyzing the role of complement activation in COVID-19. The researchers summarize current knowledge about the interaction of coronaviruses with the complement system. They postulate that: “1) coronaviruses activate multiple complement pathways, 2) severe COVID-19 clinical features often resemble pathologies by complement, 3) the combined effects of complement activation, dysregulated neutrophilia, endothelial injury, and hypercoagulability are all characteristics that lead to the severity of COVID-19, 4) a subset of patients with COVID-19 may have a genetic predisposition associated with complement dysregulation, 5) these observations create a basis for clinical trials of complement inhibitors in life-threatening illness.”

The complement for sure is a component to take in consideration in any inflammatory process, and, of course, besides the well known antiviral drugs in use as remdesivir, or hydroxycloroquinine and few others, it seems that also a variety of drugs for autoimmune diseases are working pretty well considering the type of damage created from this virus so as corticosteroids medications. Convalescent plasma from people recovered from COVID-19 also seems to have been used and considered more extensively lately.

Let’s do not forget of the crucial importance of vitamin C also used in critical cases in high doses and vitamin A as well as of vitamin D besides the variety of antiviral herbs now present in the most of the complex for immune support, or therapies like hydrogen peroxide nebulization and ozone therapy, discussed lately from naturopaths as ways to kill microorganisms in general.

Winter is coming and so the influenza season for it is better for all of us continuing to support our immune system and continuing to follow the other common recommendations.

Thanks for Reading

Mariarosaria M.


Dr. Michael Murray, N.D. Webinar and Most Recent Articles on COVID-19

Pub Med Library



I have been fascinated from the detailed data of a typical encyclopedia, as Wikipedia, since microorganisms, virology, and microbiology were always a preferred subjects during my course of Biology.

For this reason, I would like to spend more time on viruses to provide to readers as well to myself data that look of a certain interest considering the period we are living and our interest for viruses in general.

History of Viruses

Louis Pasteur, a French biologist, and microbiologist was responsible of the discovery of the principle of vaccination, microbial fermentation, and pasteurization.

He is remembered for his breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases and his discoveries have saved many lives since then. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax.

His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known as the discoverer of pasteurization, the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination.

Louis Pasteur is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology and recognized as “Father of Microbiology”. He was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation performing experiments that showed that, without contamination, microorganisms could not develop. 

Here is how the discovery of the existence of particles like viruses happened thanks to Pasteur’s discoveries and experiments. Pasteur was unable to find a causative agent for rabies and was guessing about a pathogen too small to be detected by microscopes. In 1884, the French microbiologist Chamberland invented the Chamberland Filter with pores small enough to remove all bacteria from a solution.

In 1892, the Russian biologist Dimitri Ivanovsky used this filter to study what is now known as the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, he crushed leaf extracts from infected tobacco plants which remained infectious even after filtration to remove bacteria. He suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria.

At the time it was thought that all infectious agents could be retained by filters and grown on a nutrient medium, this was part of the “germ theory disease”. In 1898, the microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck repeated the experiments and became persuaded that the filtered solution contained a new form of infectious agent.

Beijerinck observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing; he called contagium vivum fluidum (fluid living germ) and re-introduced the word virus. He thought that viruses were liquid in nature, but later another scientist proved they were instead particulate. 

In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a group of viruses that infect bacteria, now called bacteriophages, and a French-Canadian microbiologist  described as viruses that would produce areas of dead bacteria, when added to bacteria on an agar-plate.

He diluted a suspension of these viruses and discovered that the highest dilutions, or lower concentration, formed discrete areas of dead organisms. Counting these areas and multiplying by the dilution factor he could calculate the number of viruses in the original suspension.

Phages were proposed as a potential treatment for diseases such as typhoid and cholera, but then forgotten with the development of penicillin. The development of bacteria resistance to antibiotics has recently renewed interest in the therapeutic use of bacteriophages.

By the end of the 19th century, viruses were defined in terms of their infectivity, their ability to pass filters, and their requirement for living hosts. Viruses had been grown only in plants and animals. In 1906, a scientist invented a method for growing tissues in lymph, and later more animal tissues and cells were experimented. Their method was not adopted until the 1950s when poliovirus was grown on a large scale for vaccine production.

Another breakthrough came in 1931, when two American pathologists grew influenza and different other viruses in fertilized chicken eggs. In 1949 poliovirus were grown in cultured cells from aborted human embryonic tissue. This work allowed the production of an effective polio vaccine.

The first images of viruses were obtained thanks to the invention of electron microscope in 1931 by German engineers, in 1935, American biochemist and virologist Wendell Meredith Stanley examined the tobacco mosaic virus and found it was mostly made of protein.

The tobacco mosaic virus was the first to be crystallized and its structure could be this way descripted in detail with the X-diffraction technique. On the basis of the X-ray crystallographic pictures, Rosalind Franklin discovered the full structure of the virus in 1955. 

In the same year was showed that purified tobacco mosaic virus RNA and its protein coat can assemble by themselves to form functional viruses, suggesting that this simple mechanism was probably the one through which viruses were created within their host cells.

The second half of the 20th century was the golden age of virus discovery and most of the documented species of animal, plant, and bacterial viruses were discovered during these years.

In 1983 Luc Montagnier’s team at Pasteur Institute in France, isolated the retrovirus now called HIV. In 1989 a team at Chiron corporation discovered Hepatitis C virus.

To be continued.

Thanks For Reading

Mariarosaria M.

Wikipedia Rearrangement

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What Is Methylation And Ways To Support


Methylation is a chemical process for methyl groups –CH3 are added to molecules in our body, molecules like, genes, or enzymes, or hormones, amino acids, and so on, to activate their function.   It controls genetic expression and determines whether a particular gene is turned on or off. Every gene in every one of our cells is ultimately regulated by the process of methylation.

The body’s main methyl donor is SAMe, (S-adenosylmethionine), SAMe travels around the body providing methyl groups to molecules in need. Once activated, these molecules can perform their jobs. A common example of methylation is the addition of a methyl group to folate, which converts folic acid into the active form of folate known as 5-MTHF, (5- methyl-tetrahydrofolate) People with the MTHFR genetic mutation have difficulties activating folate due to a genetic mutation that affects the ability of the MTHFR enzyme to add a methyl group to folate.

For this reason, people with MTHFR often find they feel much better when they supplement with methylfolate. Another example of methylation is the addition of a methyl group to homocysteine (a marker of inflammation and cardiovascular disease) to convert it into methionine, a harmless amino acid. The addition and removal of methyl groups to and from DNA are responsible for turning genes on and off. When our methylation system fails, we have genes turned on when they should be off and turned off when they should be turned on. This can cause serious consequences to our health.

For optimal health, we need to optimize our methylation.

We can do so finding the right dose of methylation support. We do not want too much because there might be unpleasant side effects, but also not too little. For this reason, Dr. Ben Lynch has created a new formula, “Optimal Methylate Chewable”, to address the need for an easy-to-take vitamin that supports methylation quickly and gently.

This lower dose of methylation support is perfect for those just starting out or who are sensitive to the higher doses found in most methyl support supplements. This the link for this product:

Thanks For Reading

Mariarosaria M.

Rearranged by “What is Methylation”
Seeking Health Educational Health

Picture From Google

Viruses and Coronavirus At Glance

Viruses are submicroscopic particles of genetic material contained in an envelope, parasites that live at the expenses of the host organism and reproduce using the host’s genetic material to duplicate their DNA or RNA, are  ubiquitous in the ecosystem, are found  everywhere  in  millions of species.

Based on the infected host, the viruses are classified into animal, plant and fungal viruses, and bacteriophages that are viruses that infect bacteria and are the most complex; today are used in probiotics formula to function as antibiotics.

Other classifications use the geometric shape of the capsid, (the envelope that encloses the genetic material and which usually has the form of an icosahedron, or the presence or not of a lipidic envelope.

Outside the cell they exist as independent units called virions and which consist of genetic material, DNA or RNA that encodes for the structure of proteins with which viruses penetrate the host cells, the capsid or coat, and the lipidic envelope if present.

Viruses are measured in nanometers corresponding to one thousandth of a micron which in turn corresponds to the thousandth of a millimeter and for this reason the smallest can be observed only at the electronic microscope.

The most widely used classification distinguishes viruses based on the nucleic acid that makes up the genetic material and the replication method used in the host cell

This classification distinguishes:

  • DNA viruses divided into dual-chain and single-chain viruses
  • RNA viruses divided into single-chain positives and single-chain negatives and less common RNA double-chain
  • Virus with double chain of DNA reverse transcriptase and single chain of RNA reverse transcriptase to which the Retroviruses, the viruses responsible for HIV/AIDS belong.

Reverse Transcriptase are enzymes that allow the formation of DNA from a template of RNA, they are named “reverse” because normally the transcription of RNA is made from a stamp of DNA.

Viruses appear to have a short generation time, and RNA viruses, as SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19 is, in particular have elevated mutation rates, which when combined with natural selection allows the virus to adapt to host environmental changes and pass the characteristic to subsequent generations.

The origins of viruses are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. 

Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, even though they lack the key characteristics as cell structure that are generally considered necessary criteria for life.

Viral evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral disease, with the flu for example, the rapidity of the viral mutation causes problems in the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, so as is happening with COVID-19.

Viral pathogenesis studies how viruses cause the disease, while virulence is the ability to cause the disease.

Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through vectors: for example, viruses in animals can be transferred by blood sucking insects as mosquitos. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and Rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, passed by hand-to-mouth contact or in food or water.

HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called “host range” This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, if it is capable of infecting many.

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV, and viral Hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed against these.

When the immune system encounters a virus it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus by neutralizing the infection or present it to other cells of the immune system for destruction, these are called T-cells, or T-lymphocytes, antibodies are instead produced by B-lymphocytes, both cells, or lymphocytes B and T are part of the white cells, or  white blood cells of the immune system.

T-cells are responsible for the production of molecules called cytokines such as interleukins and interferon, these together with macrophages and platelets and other molecules are part of our body’s complex defense system against all sorts of external attacks.  

Vaccines must consider this type of immune activation into account to avoid immunological reactions. The lethal diseases appear to have resulted from accidents (zoonosis) due to jumps from a host species where they were benign to another species and where instead they become lethal and cause of serious and dangerous diseases, such as the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 for which the original source were bats and few other animals.

The development of a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 related,  is still undergoing because of the difficulties encountered with this virus and the type of immunity that it activates and at present antiviral drugs are among the most effective solutions yet to appear and work in many cases along with the use of antibiotics and alternative therapies that strengthen the immune system.

For info on how to support the immune system a previous blog of mine can provide specific information, this the link:

Other strategies are instead the application of passive immunity through the use of serums made of antibodies against the virus obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients which seems to work pretty well in many cases, and ultimately approved by the governmental health agencies as one of the therapies of choice, as much as they were doubting the efficacy of this therapy because of the antibodies time frame of duration.

To be continued.

Thanks for Reading

Mariarosaria M.

Source and Rearranging: “Virus”, Wikipedia

Picture: Bacteriophage, by National