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What Is Methylation And Ways To Support

 



Methylation is a chemical process for methyl groups –CH3 are added to molecules in our body, molecules like, genes, or enzymes, or hormones, amino acids, and so on, to activate their function.   It controls genetic expression and determines whether a particular gene is turned on or off. Every gene in every one of our cells is ultimately regulated by the process of methylation.

The body’s main methyl donor is SAMe, (S-adenosylmethionine), SAMe travels around the body providing methyl groups to molecules in need. Once activated, these molecules can perform their jobs. A common example of methylation is the addition of a methyl group to folate, which converts folic acid into the active form of folate known as 5-MTHF, (5- methyl-tetrahydrofolate) People with the MTHFR genetic mutation have difficulties activating folate due to a genetic mutation that affects the ability of the MTHFR enzyme to add a methyl group to folate.

For this reason, people with MTHFR often find they feel much better when they supplement with methylfolate. Another example of methylation is the addition of a methyl group to homocysteine (a marker of inflammation and cardiovascular disease) to convert it into methionine, a harmless amino acid. The addition and removal of methyl groups to and from DNA are responsible for turning genes on and off. When our methylation system fails, we have genes turned on when they should be off and turned off when they should be turned on. This can cause serious consequences to our health.

For optimal health, we need to optimize our methylation.

We can do so finding the right dose of methylation support. We do not want too much because there might be unpleasant side effects, but also not too little. For this reason, Dr. Ben Lynch has created a new formula, “Optimal Methylate Chewable”, to address the need for an easy-to-take vitamin that supports methylation quickly and gently.

This lower dose of methylation support is perfect for those just starting out or who are sensitive to the higher doses found in most methyl support supplements. This the link for this product:

Thanks For Reading

Mariarosaria M.

Rearranged by “What is Methylation”
Seeking Health Educational Health

Picture From Google

Viruses and Coronavirus At Glance

Viruses are submicroscopic particles of genetic material contained in an envelope, parasites that live at the expenses of the host organism and reproduce using the host’s genetic material to duplicate their DNA or RNA, are  ubiquitous in the ecosystem, are found  everywhere  in  millions of species.

Based on the infected host, the viruses are classified into animal, plant and fungal viruses, and bacteriophages that are viruses that infect bacteria and are the most complex; today are used in probiotics formula to function as antibiotics.

Other classifications use the geometric shape of the capsid, (the envelope that encloses the genetic material and which usually has the form of an icosahedron, or the presence or not of a lipidic envelope.

Outside the cell they exist as independent units called virions and which consist of genetic material, DNA or RNA that encodes for the structure of proteins with which viruses penetrate the host cells, the capsid or coat, and the lipidic envelope if present.

Viruses are measured in nanometers corresponding to one thousandth of a micron which in turn corresponds to the thousandth of a millimeter and for this reason the smallest can be observed only at the electronic microscope.

The most widely used classification distinguishes viruses based on the nucleic acid that makes up the genetic material and the replication method used in the host cell

This classification distinguishes:

  • DNA viruses divided into dual-chain and single-chain viruses
  • RNA viruses divided into single-chain positives and single-chain negatives and less common RNA double-chain
  • Virus with double chain of DNA reverse transcriptase and single chain of RNA reverse transcriptase to which the Retroviruses, the viruses responsible for HIV/AIDS belong.

Reverse Transcriptase are enzymes that allow the formation of DNA from a template of RNA, they are named “reverse” because normally the transcription of RNA is made from a stamp of DNA.

Viruses appear to have a short generation time, and RNA viruses, as SARS-CoV-2, responsible for COVID-19 is, in particular have elevated mutation rates, which when combined with natural selection allows the virus to adapt to host environmental changes and pass the characteristic to subsequent generations.

The origins of viruses are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity in a way analogous to sexual reproduction. 

Viruses are considered by some biologists to be a life form because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection, even though they lack the key characteristics as cell structure that are generally considered necessary criteria for life.

Viral evolution is an important aspect of the epidemiology of viral disease, with the flu for example, the rapidity of the viral mutation causes problems in the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, so as is happening with COVID-19.

Viral pathogenesis studies how viruses cause the disease, while virulence is the ability to cause the disease.

Viruses spread in many ways. One transmission pathway is through vectors: for example, viruses in animals can be transferred by blood sucking insects as mosquitos. Influenza viruses are spread by coughing and sneezing. Norovirus and Rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, passed by hand-to-mouth contact or in food or water.

HIV is one of several viruses transmitted through sexual contact and by exposure to infected blood. The variety of host cells that a virus can infect is called “host range” This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, if it is capable of infecting many.

Viral infections in animals provoke an immune response that usually eliminates the infecting virus. Immune responses can also be produced by vaccines, which confer an artificially acquired immunity to the specific viral infection. Some viruses, including those that cause AIDS, HPV, and viral Hepatitis, evade these immune responses and result in chronic infections. Several antiviral drugs have been developed against these.

When the immune system encounters a virus it produces specific antibodies that bind to the virus by neutralizing the infection or present it to other cells of the immune system for destruction, these are called T-cells, or T-lymphocytes, antibodies are instead produced by B-lymphocytes, both cells, or lymphocytes B and T are part of the white cells, or  white blood cells of the immune system.

T-cells are responsible for the production of molecules called cytokines such as interleukins and interferon, these together with macrophages and platelets and other molecules are part of our body’s complex defense system against all sorts of external attacks.  

Vaccines must consider this type of immune activation into account to avoid immunological reactions. The lethal diseases appear to have resulted from accidents (zoonosis) due to jumps from a host species where they were benign to another species and where instead they become lethal and cause of serious and dangerous diseases, such as the coronavirus responsible for COVID-19 for which the original source were bats and few other animals.

The development of a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 related,  is still undergoing because of the difficulties encountered with this virus and the type of immunity that it activates and at present antiviral drugs are among the most effective solutions yet to appear and work in many cases along with the use of antibiotics and alternative therapies that strengthen the immune system.

For info on how to support the immune system a previous blog of mine can provide specific information, this the link:

https://mariarosaria735738333.org/2020/05/15/natural-protocols-to-strength-the-immune-system/

Other strategies are instead the application of passive immunity through the use of serums made of antibodies against the virus obtained from convalescent COVID-19 patients which seems to work pretty well in many cases, and ultimately approved by the governmental health agencies as one of the therapies of choice, as much as they were doubting the efficacy of this therapy because of the antibodies time frame of duration.

To be continued.

Thanks for Reading

Mariarosaria M.

Source and Rearranging: “Virus”, Wikipedia

Picture: Bacteriophage, by National Geographic.com

Thyroid and Iodine Controversy

There is a debated controversy in regard of iodine need and thyroid function from time. I have been personally affected having thyroid disease, precisely Hashimoto’s, which is the autoimmune form of the disease and that affects millions in the world’s population at this time.

It is well recognized that hypothyroidism with goiter caused from iodine deficiency requires iodine supplementation while still controversial the need for iodine with autoimmune hypothyroidism, or Hashimoto’s where any extra from supplements or even diet must be avoided otherwise cause of major inflammation and development of thyroid autoantibodies, mainly anti-TPO, or anti-Thyroid peroxidase.

Thyroid peroxidase,(TPO) or iodide peroxidase, is an enzyme expressed mainly in the thyroid which metabolizes the synthesis of thyroid hormones through oxidation of iodide ions to make iodine atoms to add to tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin for the production of thyroid hormones, T1, T2,T3,T4. ( Wikipedia modified definition)

Here are different points of view from a variety of natural specialists of thyroid that I personally follow and trust.

Dr. Alan Christianson, naturopath, thyroid and adrenal specialist, and NY Times Best Seller is one of the major experts and representatives of this, he has treated in his books and written variety of articles in regard; he just published a recent one.

His thoughts from the most recent article:

http://www.drchristianson.com/how-much-iodine-do-americans-consume/

Dr. Christianson was always expressing his concerns in regard of iodine supplementation and consequences on autoimmune thyroid disease.

Dr. Izabella Wentz, naturopath and thyroid pharmacist, NY Times Best Seller as well also agree with Dr. Alan Christianson in regard of the damage of iodine on Hasimoto’s thyroid diseases.

Part of her conclusions from an article titled “Iodine and Hashimoto”

“While a deficiency of iodine created hypothyroidism due to a lack of building materials for thyroid hormone, an excess of it also created hypothyroidism, but through a different mechanism. Today, iodine excess is recognized as a risk factor for developing autoimmune thyroid disease.

Iodine from foods and supplements is processed by the thyroid gland so that the body can effectively use it. During this process, hydrogen peroxide, a free radical, is released. In cases when the body has adequate levels of selenium and it is used properly, the selenium neutralizes the hydrogen peroxide. However, in cases of iodine excess, excess hydrogen peroxide can cause oxidative damage to the thyroid gland. Research has shown that high doses of iodine can trigger Hashimoto’s in people who are genetically predisposed to Hashimoto’s and may perhaps have certain “vulnerabilities” like a selenium deficiency.”

What we can learn from this is the importance of selenium, trace mineral, fundamental so as iodine for the body functions, selenium is particularly important for neutralizing the hydrogen peroxide, and it is also necessary for the production of glutathione, the best body antioxidant and neutralizer of toxins.

Dr. Wentz dedicate a whole chapter on iodine controversy in one of her famous books “Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis” Lifestyle Interventions for Finding and Treating the Root Cause.

Dr. Suzy Cohen, pretty famous thyroid naturopath and pharmacist and NY Times Best Seller seems to agree to the need of iodine in moderated doses especially if there are signs of deficiency like, fatigue, breast pain, hair loss and during pregnancy.

Her personal discussion in regard from this article:

suzycohen.com/articles/the-truth-about-shellfish-allergies-and-iodine-deficiency/

Dr. Amy Myers is another famous thyroid specialist in the field of naturopathy, NY Time Best Seller as well.

This is what she comments in regard in an article titled: “Thyroid Health, and Iodine”

“The medical community agrees that sufficient levels of iodine are necessary for optimal thyroid function. In fact, the reason we all eat “iodized” salt is because public health experts around the world recognized how important iodine is for preventing thyroid dysfunction.

However, in the past few years there has been quite a bit of controversy over whether Hashimoto’s patients should take supplemental iodine. Some researchers advocate megadose of iodine, up to a hundred times the recommended daily dose. Although some practitioners and patients have seen success with this method, I do not recommend this for my own patients because extremely high levels of iodine can actually cause both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism.

Iodine is part of the halogen family, which also includes fluorine, chlorine, and bromine. They all fall into the same column of the periodic table, which means they have similar properties. Fluorine, chlorine, and bromine are similar enough to iodine that your thyroid will suck them up and store them in place of iodine, effectively “displacing” iodine.”

She seems to believe in the importance of iodine for thyroid function in general and in the deficit instead due to the presence of the other halogens like fluoride, for example, in water and food supplies that the thyroid gland can confuse for iodine and incorporate in the hormone production, and for her this is one of the main reasons for thyroid disease is now epidemic. She also admits that high doses of iodine as some doctors recommend are potentially dangerous for thyroid.

A very simple explanation, accurate and easy to understand comes from this you tube video where this doctor, Dr. Justin Marchegiani, a functional medicine doctor, shows the mechanisms connected to the whole process of iodine capture and introduction in the thyroid gland, pathway and metabolism, and products of catabolism. Practically he agrees with the theory that iodine is not suggested with autoimmune thyroid disease because along a series of mechanisms will raise thyroid antibodies and this way causing more problems to the gland and course of the disease.

This the video:

He very well and in quite easy way explains the process of organogenesis of thyroid hormones from iodide to iodine, the conjugation of these with the amino acid tyrosine and product of catabolism that derives from, H2O2, hydrogen peroxide, which is a free radical and cause of oxidative stress and so of inflammation and damage.

Fortunately, this product can be converted in water, H2O, harmless and beneficial thanks to selenium, this is why selenium is so important for thyroid function.

His conclusions are that with goiter and which means iodine deficiency, “yes” to iodine, of course, with Hashimoto’s, the autoimmune thyroid disease ”no” to iodine because this will raise the antibodies and put more gasoline on fire, increase the damage of auto-destruction of the gland, especially if there is deficit of selenium.

Different analysis on a subject pretty much discussed and that as much as might look so obvious is still creating confusion and doubts if we consider that same exponents of naturopathy can be slightly disagree on the matter.

Thanks for reading

Mariarosaria M.

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MTHFR, Blood Type Influence and Coronavirus.

Susceptibility and Alternative Therapies

One of my first blog titled “MTHFR and Blood Type” has been viewed recently several times, probably to find a connection with what is happening right now with the coronavirus susceptibility.

My intent with this blog was simply to analyze both influences with diseases separately, and eventually brainstorming connections among the two things.

I have already over discussed about the distinction in secretors and non-secretors in the population and this looks the first evident character of classification in regard of the susceptibility. The most of the percentage of the population, the secretors, equal to the 80% have been not affected from the virus or at least in a mild way, or are asymptomatic, while the rest, the non-secretors, equal to the 20% and made from those with the chronic and debilitating diseases, or age related, instead have been pretty bad affected with severe complications from the virus infection.

We thought was almost over, we all were finally getting always more free from all of this and trying to ignore that almost did happen, but unfortunately is still happening for many people in many States, here in the States, and so in other parts of the world.

The surveillance must continue, and we must keep going with our daily routine of sanitation and hygiene roles, wearing masks, and keeping social distance for what we can.

With COVIDA-19 the immune system is under attack and there is a sort of” cytokine storm” which lower the immune defense of the body and this is the way for the infection becomes more severe and begins to attack the respiratory system, or other systems with its complications, unless there is a strong immune system capable to react to the threat; this is why it is so important to build strong immune defense during these times, and people with chronic and debilitating disease and immunodeficient must take even more seriously precautions.

There is so a connection, or better are people with MTHFR mutations also more at risk, or susceptible to COVID-19 so as some blood groups?

It looks like they are, so as Blood type A people for having more affinity to the virus since this has a type A configuration, and which means that the antibodies do not recognize the virus as an invader and let go inside the cells, people with MTHFR mutations are also more sensitive to the attack from the virus.

Here is what a Methylation expert, Dr. Nancy Mullan, MD thinks about the correlation COVID-19 and MTHFR

She, as the most of naturopaths thinks that besides the regular measures of prevention it is necessary to reinforce the immune system and that the virus steels methyl groups for its functions, for this reason methyl groups are considered anti-viral because when they attaches to the appropriate receptor site on a virus they silent the virus, so as they turn off bad genes to proliferation of cancer.

They make the virus unable to infect a cell, this is why it is very important for people with these deficits to make sure to methylate to a proper level, and which means to get appropriate methylation support either with food than with supplements.

For whom interested here is a link to another of my blog where I review the MTHFR SNPs or genetic mutations and specific foods and supplements to support and whose data come from one the major specialist with methylations mutations, genetic SNPs and Epigenetics related, Dr. Ben Lynch and his book, “Dirty Genes”  

https://wp.me/pa21AI-3A

Dr. Mullan also makes sure in her article “ MTHFR and COVID-19” that if someone has MTHFR and lives in the area hardest hit  from the pandemic can dose up on Vitamin C which has well known antiviral properties, vitamins A and D so that the levels of these important immune boosters do not get low. I also have discussed about this type of support in previous blogs, one of this is “Natural Protocols To Strength The Immune System”, here the link:

https://mariarosaria735738333.org/2020/05/15/natural-protocols-to-strength-the-immune-system/

Dr. Mullan also recommends that a person is treated with chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin in case of severe symptoms, or Remdesivir if symptoms are more progressed. If instead someone has been told that has the virus but can stay at home, if MTHFR positive should at least get high dose of Vitamin C through IV injection or even better consult a naturopath, or specialist who may also offer IV Hydrogen Peroxide and/or Ozone therapy; in addition they can give appropriate vitamin infusions based on personal situation.

A doctor from one of a recent summit on Immune Defense, Dr. Thomas E. Levy was talking about these two last therapies in regard of coronavirus infection prevention in addition to a more usual immune supportive protocol including high doses of vitamin C, vitamin D, zinc and magnesium chloride as type of magnesium and in solution of 2.5%,and any other quality supplements including additional antioxidants.

He was mentioning Hydrogen Peroxide nebulization as successful therapy for Covid-19 as long as for any other type of pathogen and infection, as much as needed and for a time of 5 min per session as prophylactic therapy.

Concentration must be 3% or less based on patient tolerance, for some people this percentage can cause stinging o burning in the nose, in this case can be diluted with water till a tolerable concentration, if someone is heavily infected, 3% is usually tolerated. Also, the nebulization can sting and inflame the eyes, to avoid this problem Dr. Levy suggests of performing in front of a fan.

He defines ozone therapy the best antipathogen therapy for any viral infection, the only problem is the availability for blood treatment and/or ultraviolet blood irradiation.

Ozone has been applied for the Ebola virus in conjunction with vitamin C, but not in high doses, or vitamin C and glutathione and with positive results.

He comments that vitamin C high doses is an absolute virucide, and in consideration to take there are: dose and frequency of administration and form, if IV, oral or liposomal; usually doses performed through IV are 1.5 grams every 6 hours for advanced sepsis, most important is the frequency; with liposomal 3-5 grams per day, and with regular oral vitamin C 4-6 grams per day, if bowel tolerates.

Plasma harvested from recovered patients has shown to be working, but this therapy- he says- is more involved and expensive than ozone, vitamin C and chloroquine. He compares chloroquine therapy to hydrogen peroxide therapy in dissolving all respiratory issues, but that it is effective only in conjunction with azithromycin.

Chloroquine, as already mention from me in previous blogs on COVID-19, is not highly recommended from naturopaths for its side effects, but this doctor is an MD for views and experiences are different.

As we know chloroquine is an ionophore so as flavonoids like quercetin are, and which means that they create a channel for ions through the cell membrane to allow molecules like zinc to perform their function. In the case of zinc inhibition of viral replication for stopping the activity of RNA polymerase, the enzyme that builds the genetic material for the virus.

Other factor that he discusses in his e-book  offered at the summit is the sensibility to heat of viruses, they are totally denatured and destroyed at very high temperature like 132 F, equivalent to 56 C, as it has been proved with MERS-CoV.

This is why saunas are one more suggested therapy for the virus, they go up to 140 F, he suggests to hold and deep brief for few seconds and then let out , and that a burn or sting will be the prove that it’s working.

Simply different point of view on a theme pretty much discussed, but considering the upgoing situation, I believe that it is always okay to review data and search for new alternatives and brainstorming about causes and predisposition in the population.

Thanks for reading.

Mariarosaria M

Secretors and Non-Secretors, Blood Groups Antigens, and Antibodies. Immunologic Involvement against Invaders.

Secretors and Non-Secretors

The world population is divided into two different groups referring to blood group systems, secretors, and non-secretors.

Maybe a connection on how the COVID-19 coronavirus is affecting the global population.

I was always intrigued about the concept of secretor and non-secretor since I apprehended from Dr. Peter D’Adamo and I am using his theories now to develop a questionnaire and potential brainstorming around a concept that probably for himself does not make any sense in this case.

Blood Groups Analysis

Source: “Eat Right 4 Your Type” “Blood Type Encyclopedia” Dr. Peter J. D’Adamo

In the ABO system each blood group has a different antigen with its own structure and blood groups are named based on this characteristic.

Blood type A has an A antigen on its red blood cells, group B a B antigen, group AB has both A and B antigens, blood type O has  the H antigen which is not really an antigen and because of this is referred as group zero in Europe.

Blood groups under the chemical structure are made of long chains of repeating sugars that end with a sugar called fucose, the simplest of the blood group antigens, O or H; this antigen also is the platform for the other blood groups and which are determined by our genetics.

For example, blood group A is capable to produce an enzyme that converts the H antigen into the A antigen, group B in B, group AB both the enzymes, while group O does not produce enzymes for cannot convert its H in any other antigen.

Blood group A is made of the O sugar, fucose and another sugar, N-acetyl galactosamine by its end. Blood group B by fucose and D-galactosamine at its end. Blood group AB from fucose and both the other sugars, N-acetyl-galactosamine and D-galactosamine.  Blood group O only from fucose.

Immunologic Involvement of Blood Groups

When the immune system perceives a potential invader creates antibodies against that antigen, these antibodies are made from the immune cells, and each is specifically designed to identify and attach to the specific shape of an antigen.

Antibodies have a constant portion to which the cells of the immune system can bind and a variable portion made normally of two arms that can be adjusted to the shape and size of the antigen and that together the constant portion gives to the antibody the shape of a Y.

If there is a constant fight between antigens and antibodies as during the course of a disease and change or mutation of an antigen the antibody will not recognize, and the immune system will respond increasing the number and type of antibodies.

Blood groups produce antibodies to other blood group antigens, the reason for transfusions need be done from same blood types or from a type which does not have antigens and so antibodies against, as blood type O, the universal donor.

Antibodies against other blood groups, or anti-blood group antibodies are Ig M, and are the most potent in our immune system because of their shape, they actually have a star configuration because the variable portion is made of 5 arms, fort his reason they can attach to more antigens; this is what causes agglutination, and the reason why these antibodies are named hemagglutinins because they agglutinate antigens on blood red cells or any other microorganism that enters in our system.

This powerful ability of the hemagglutinins to agglutinate can be detected on a glass slide with naked eyes, without microscope, and it is the most common way of identifying blood groups in laboratory.

Most antibodies require a stimulation to be produced as a vaccination or an infection, the blood group antibodies are produced automatically from birth and reach the adult levels by four months as result of introduction of food or microbes of a different blood group.

When intruders of any type are agglutinated from these antibodies they stick together and clump and this make easier to be detected from the other components of the immune system as the complement, for example, which detects immune-complexes, and to be eliminated.    

When this hemagglutination occurs within blood groups due to a wrong blood transfusion the results are those typical of a mistaken blood transfusion, and pretty dangerous, as anaphylactic shock, for example.

Principles of Blood Groups Transfusion

Referring to the ABO system and ways a transfusion can happen, blood type A has antibodies against  blood type B for having the A antigen, for this reason can receive blood only from type A and O, while type B has anti-A, for can only receive from B and O, AB has both the antigens and not antibodies against, and for this reason can receive from each other type, and is the universal acceptor, none of the groups has instead antibodies against blood group O because this one does not have antigens and this is why blood group O is the universal donor.

The Lewis System

Secretors and non-secretors are characterized by the Lewis system of blood groups, secretors are the 80% of population and those who carry the blood type antigens in their secrets, like saliva and mucus and that for this reason have a  better protection and stronger immune system, non-secretors the 20%, instead, do not carry blood type antigens in their secrets and therefore have a weaker immune system and lesser protection.

The Lewis system of blood groups, by the doctor’s definition can be performed on secrets for being the antigens in the secrets, the most common way is the test on saliva for the presence of the ABH antigen, if this antigen is present the person is secretor, if not, non-secretor; or can be also done on blood using the Lewis blood group system.

Being secretor or non-secretor is independent from the ABO blood group and it is controlled by a different gene; this is defined as ABH secretor system, and it means that a type A or B or O or AB can be either secretor or non- secretor

In this system two possible antigens can be produced, Lewis-a and Lewis-b, with no relation with the A and B blood groups. People can type as:

Lewis-(a-b+), or Le(a-b+) = secretor

Lewis-(a+b-), or Le(a+b-) = non-secretor

Lewis (a-b-), or Le(a-b-) = Lewis negative or double negative (secretor or non-secretor)

The reason for there are Lewis negative individuals is due to the fact that a small number of individuals (6% of white population and 16% of the black population) are genetically not capable to manufacture Lewis-a since the birth.

For this small percentage of people, the Lewis system cannot be used for definition of secretor status but based on the doctor’s experience they can be included with non-secretor since they share many of the health problems and serious consequences.

For example, non-secretors are more prone to general inflammation and autoimmune diseases than secretors, to both types of diabetes and metabolic problems, heart disease, urinary infections, cancer, and immunodeficiency.

I was wondering if the differentiation in secretor and non-secretor has to do with the fact that the 20% of the global population results in that was supposed to be more hit from the virus based on the statistics of the health organizations, while the majority correspondent to the 80% should be the one with less severity of symptoms and course of the disease or even asymptomatic.

But is this what has been happening or the statistics are different? I leave this conclusion and evaluation to the experts with the hope that can be found some kind of connections with this typization among secretors and non-secretors and the way the population are hit from the virus of the pandemic.

Blood Groups and Connections with COVID-19

In regard instead of the connection among blood groups and the virus based on what has been observed in China where the major number of critical cases were blood type A,  Dr. D’Adamo ‘s conclusion has been of not too much importance because of other factors that influence the risks and process of this disease and its complications as the comorbidity for example and which could be due, (I am personally adding), to the distinction between secretor and non-secretors?

Here is a statement from his own article: “COVID-19: ABO BLOOD TYPE”

This is the link:  https://dadamo.com/dangerous/2020/03/20/covid-19-blood-type/

From a citation from this article: In a study published in 2008 in a journal of Glycobiology was observed that the property of the spike proteins of coronaviruses to adhere to cells expressing the enzyme ACE-2 was inhibited either from monoclonal than from natural human antibodies.

“This indicated that these antibodies may block the interaction between the virus and its receptor, thereby providing protection. They concluded that ‘the ABO polymorphism could contribute to substantially reduce the virus transmission, affecting both the number of infected individuals and the kinetics of the epidemic.”

Dr. D’Adamo’s Statement:

“There is a long evidence-based history that linking the ABO blood types (A, B, AB and O) with specific differences in susceptibility to a wide range of infectious illnesses, including smallpox, plague, cholera and influenza. Although most speculation calls research to identify some aspect of the difference between the cell antigens that characterize the physical manifestation of ABO blood type, it is much more likely that the cause behind the blood type differences lay instead with the opposing blood group antibodies and not the antigens”.

Reconsidering instead the classification secretors, non-secretors, if really this virus- having an A-type configuration- can recognize A-type structures as blood groups A, for example, non-secretors, blood type-A people with not antigens in their secrets should not be recognized easily by the virus. It appears very controversial and ambiguous, just a hypothesis.

Thanks for Reading.

Mariarosaria M.

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